Central Government

1. What Greenhouse Gases are, and their relationship to weather and climate

Greenhouse effect, Carbon Cycle, Keeling Curve

Good to read first- ‘Climate change: Where we are in seven charts and what you can do to help


Initial graphs- place them throughout framework


Simple diagrams of the greenhouse effect… 

Image result for greenhouse effect


and the carbon cycle


Relationship between CO2 and temperature over the last 400,000 years and since the Industrial Revolution- current concentrations of CO2 PPM

The Keeling Curve

info & source- https://scripps.ucsd.edu/programs/keelingcurve/


Ice core data

This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements, provides evidence that atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> has increased since the Industrial Revolution. (Source: [[LINK||http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/||NOAA]])

info & source- https://climate.nasa.gov/news/2616/core-questions-an-introduction-to-ice-cores/

Greenhouse gases


List the main greenhouse gases and where they come from & GWP 

*ACTIVITY- MMU match the GHG with the human activity game*

source; MMU

Difference between Weather & Climate

 Weather vs Climate 

source; Opera North

* Activity *

Weather vs. climate statements e.g. Hurricane vs El-nino

Videos/ Images/ Resources

Climate science: what you need to know Bill Ny- climate science 101

Global CO2 emissions data in many forms


Scientific credibility of climate deniers/sceptics


‘If 13950 people told you that a road wasn’t safe to go down, but 24 told you it was fine, would you still take that road?’




2. How climate here and elsewhere is likely to change, and how we know this


Useful video on climate change UK – coastal flooding- Sky News

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1k-5_WKUtBM&feature=youtu.be– 2 min 30 seconds – 4.30


Increasing extreme heat, flooding and drought, disease…



How does climate change affect our weather?



Your Local Area

Climate Change: What Happens If The World Warms Up By 2°C?



Climate Change: What Happens If The World Warms Up By 3C?


Facts & Stats

Different emission scenarios and impacts- carbon brief


NASA- Different Emission Scenarios- how they will effect temperature, precipitation, heat etc.



Future projections & tipping points (runaway climate change)


IPCC report summary= 'how we know this'
Extreme Weather

Is more extreme weather caused by climate change?



source; https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/weather/learn-about/climate-and-climate-change/climate-change/index



Example slides…


America’s Big Freeze – January​

The east coast of America suffered some of its lowest temperatures on record last winter – even causing frozen iguanas to fall from trees in Florida. In Embarrass, Minnesota a biting -41C was recorded. This was caused by a polar vortex, where extremely cold air is locked up in the Arctic, then bursts, and causes sub-zero conditions.​

Snow in the Sahara – January​

For the third time in 40 years, it snowed in the Sahara desert covering the sand dunes. In some parts of the desert there was 40cm of snow. Average temperatures in that area of the Sahara are usually around 37C.​

The Beast from the East – February- March​

The start of last year saw a continued cold snap in the UK. In late February and early March, Siberian temperatures collided with Storm Emma, causing arctic conditions and winds hitting 60mph – as the Beast swept right across Europe.​



UK Heatwave June- July​

Temperatures soared in the UK through last June and July, well above the monthly averages, putting 2018 to be the country’s hottest year on record since 1976. This heatwave also sparked a record 2.2 million patients that attended A&E in July – a national record.​

California’s Wildfires July- August​

California had its worst wildfire in history, with masses of land, homes and buildings destroyed. The northern California’s Mendocino Complex Fire, 100 miles (160km) north of Sacramento, destroyed more than 100 homes and blackened an area about the size of Los Angeles.​

Greece’s Wildfires  July​

Wildfires in Greece in the final week of July left 93 people dead, mainly in the Attica region. The scorching weather and frequently changing gale-force winds caused the fire to spread out of control.


3. How changes in the climate are likely to affect us in the UK and in other parts of the world

1. Natural Hazards & Weather (UK)

This mainly relates to flooding…

Increased housing costs  (e.g. insurance, maintenance, repair) from flood risks, particularly to vulnerable areas-  higher risks of flooding for many areas with high levels of deprivation/lower average incomes, particularly coastal areas.

Higher insurance premiums  most of the flooding cost will be borne by insurance companies- higher insurance payouts, and in turn to changes  in risk that are then captured through higher insurance premiums.

Low income groups suffer less financial resources to prepare for or recover after being flooded. Potential to disproportionately lead to major (life‐changing) impacts on a large number of low income households.

Lack of insurance amongst low income groups While most owner occupiers have building insurance, there are much lower levels of contents insurance among tenants, with many in the lowest income  decile having no insurance at all.

Some of the areas that are at particular risk of flooding, in Yorkshire and the Humber and the East Midlands, are areas that have (relatively) high levels of deprivation/lower average incomes.

Explain map- areas shaded in- vulnerable to coastal erosion from sea level rise, rivers at risk of flooding




2. Healthcare (UK)

Temperature related mortality.  Higher temperatures increase the number of fatalities,  an effect which is heightened during prolonged heat‐waves (as observed in the European 2003  summer).

Vulnerability for certain groups e.g. the elderly, those  with existing health conditions and those with access to low levels of social care.

Air pollution- Not a direct impact of climate change but… Dirty air doesn’t directly kill people. But it’s estimated in the UK to contribute to the shortening of the lives of around 40,000 people a year, -heart or lung problems.

Rising temperatures also worsen air pollution by increasing ground level ozone, which is created when pollution from cars, factories, and other sources react to sunlight and heat. Ground-level ozone is the main component of smog.

3. Food (UK)

Lower yields- lower rainfall, flooding natural hazards and storms

Increased pests – insects can migrate further north as temperatures increase

Increased food bills- Much of the food purchased in the UK is part of global supply chains- On average, 11% of household expenditure

Food bill for an average family could rise by 9% by 2050 due to climate change

Greater impacts on low income households – spend a larger proportion of average household expenditure (16%) on food.

4. Threats to Wildlife (UK)

Rising temperatures will disrupt UK wildlife- The RSPB says large storms will damage habitats and that, as different species’ behaviour gets out of kilter, the balance between predators and their prey will be affected. Species may move northwards to cope, putting habitats under further pressure.

Biodiversity loss Drought also impacts wildlife. For example, climate change increases danger for bees as they rely on plants that are impacted by drought.

Equity and Fairness

Climate change will negatively impact those who are most vulnerable in our society- low income, elderly, rural communities. Those with health issues- pollution, heatwaves etc.  

1. Heatwaves, Fires & Droughts (Worldwide)

Access to clean drinking water, fuel out-of-control wildfires, and result in dust storms, extreme heat events, and flash flooding in the States.

Lack of water- leading cause of death and serious disease

Heat stress illness—which encompasses heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke—can occur.

Low-income residents, the young and elderly, construction and agricultural workers, individuals with pre-existing medical conditions, and people living in the center of urban areas can be more vulnerable to physical harm from heat.

2. Sea Level Rise and Flooding (Worldwide)

Damages life and property, contaminates drinking water.

Increase in food-borne and waterborne illnesses and disease-carrying insects such as mosquitoes, fleas, and ticks, cholera, typhoid outbreaks etc.

If business as usual… By 2100, it’s estimated our oceans will be one to four feet higher, threatening coastal systems and low-lying areas, including entire island nations and the world’s largest cities, including New York, Los Angeles, and Miami as well as Mumbai, Sydney, and Rio de Janeiro.

3. Crop Declines & Food Shortages (Worldwide)

Worldwide, farmers are struggling to keep up with shifting weather patterns and increasingly unpredictable water supplies.

Farms are more likely to face attacks from weeds, diseases and pests, which affect yield. Extreme events also threaten crop yields, such as through flooding or reduced water supply.

4. Disease (Worldwide)

Health impacts of temperature extremes, specifically of heat waves. In the UK, for example, under credible climate change scenarios, the type of heat wave seen in Paris in 2003 and Europe in 2006 is likely to become a once-in-two-year event by around the middle of this century.

Increased frequency of extreme weather events, including severe storms, floods and droughts.

Increased frequency of food- and water-borne diseases.

Potential for change in the seasonal patterns or geographical distribution of some vector-borne disease.

Interactions with air pollution and effects on the seasonality and duration of aeroallergens.

5. Migration & Conflict (Worldwide)

Climate Change is already the greatest driver of migration and this will increase as impacts such as droughts, hurricanes and rising sea levels force people to abandon their homes.

Global warming also aggravates existing conflicts as tensions are exacerbated by resource shortages

6. Biodiversity loss (Worldwide)

Many land, freshwater, and ocean species are shifting their geographic ranges to cooler climes or higher altitudes, in an attempt to escape warming.

Changing seasonal behaviors and traditional migration patterns, too.

Many still face “increased extinction risk due to climate change.” Climate is changing too quickly for them to adapt.

Indeed, a 2015 study showed that vertebrate species—animals with backbones, like fish, birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles—are disappearing 114 times faster than they should be, a phenomenon that has been linked to climate change, pollution, and deforestation.


1. Ask participants to work in groups to discuss the top three things that make them happy

Write their answers on a board or on paper. Then use these answers to discuss how climate change will affect those areas, and ask how they might be improved and reduce carbon emissions at the same time.


2. Split into twos/threes and discuss the category given to you. Answer the following questions…

  • How will climate change contribute towards your category?
  • What regions will be most affected by this? Who will be most affected?
  • Can you give an example of this?

Examples include

Natural Hazards & Weather



Threats to Wildlife


Interactive maps for climate vulnerability-



‘Climate change: Heatwave made up to 3C hotter by warming’



‘How much warmer is your city?’




‘Just another news day’.

4. How our actions impact on the amount of greenhouse gases produced and the impact that they have


1. Carbon Footprint calculator – https://footprint.wwf.org.uk/#/ – good to do before the course?

2. Walk the walk


3. Use the Carbon Footprint of Everything and other sources to identify the carbon footprint of key items your participants may consume or activities they take part in over a year. Ask them to rank them from lowest to highest. This can help with gaining an instinct of the carbon costs of day to day

4. ‘Play your carbon right’

GMFRS game-



How green is your parcel



More Britons travelled abroad last year than any other nationality, according to official data from the international trade body for aviation.



Global income deciles and associated lifestyle consumption emissions

5. What we can do to reduce our impact and the benefits and disadvantages of taking action

General Resource
Transport & Travel


Flight off-setting


“As the table shows, nationally a staggering 60% of journeys of between one and two miles are taken by car.

Indeed, there is an even more startling figure in GM – that ⅓ of all journeys of one kilometre or less are driven. ”


Domestic/ Energy Use

Switching to a renewable energy provider- 



Energy Efficiency measures






Resource Consumption/Waste
What else can a business do?


MMU activity- 

Split into groups and each given one section


  2. FOOD




  • Carbon emission source

  • Actions to reduce it

  • Benefits/barriers of taking action


Matrix of actions- hard vs easy, high impact vs low impact

Green light for action

  • You have the green light to try new things at work with your managers support.

  • With a partner talk about your actions and how you might implement them.

Spheres of Influence

  • Where do you have the most power/influence in your life to make a difference in regards to reducing carbon?

  • Who can *organisation*/your team influence to take action on climate change?

  • What are the barriers?

  • How can you overcome them?

Create an action plan from these activities^ 2 workplace actions- how you can put them into action.

MMU– Visualization/Futures thinking activity

Participants are separated into groups of four and use flipchart paper to draw what a sustainable low carbon world would look like. Create prompt questions on stack of cards, i.e Where will our energy come from? How can we get there? What is your role in getting us there? What is the relevance to your area of study/role at work?

Happiness game

  1. What gives you and your family the most happiness in life?

  2. What do you plan to do when you retire?

  3. How will these changes to the climate affect things you enjoy and love?

Images/ Videos/ Resources 

Five things people can do for a ‘healthier environment


A Comprehensive Tool To Measure City-Level Emissions, Model Scenarios, Set Reduction Targets And Implement Actions.



All the different cases for Climate Action– A Government Official’s Toolkit inspiring urgent climate action

6. What we are already doing locally and nationally


Paris COP21 

Deal united all the world’s nations in a single agreement on tackling climate change for the first time in history.

‘Aims to hold the increase in temperature to 2 degrees … and pursue efforts to limit temperature increase to 1.5C’




The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess climate change based on the latest science. Through the IPCC, thousands of experts from around the world synthesize the most recent developments in climate science, adaptation, vulnerability, and mitigation every five to seven years.

In October 2018 IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty.

To summarise this report into one key finding was that, if we are going to have a reasonable chance of keeping warming to 1.5 degrees, we have just over 10 years to cut global emissions by 50% based on 2010 levels. We then have another two decades (until 2050) to reach zero net emissions.

We have already burned through a large portion of our carbon budget, and recently at an alarming rate. It is clear from the report that if emissions continue unabated, even with countries’ current climate commitments being fully implemented, we blow through the budget in just about a decade’s time for a likely chance of limiting warming to 1.5°C. Doing so would expose the world to even more severe heat waves, sea level rise, extreme rainfall and other climate impacts. The IPCC makes it clear that we can no longer emit at our carbon-intensive rate if we are to avoid the worst climate impacts. We must instead rapidly turn around our emissions trajectory.


UK Climate Change Act 2008– Ambition 80% carbon reduction target by 2050​

IN 2017- UK achieved 40% reduction of 1990 from levels… BUT excludes shipping, aviation, imports, could be as little as only 10% including them​…


*New Target*

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jun/11/theresa-may-commits-to-net-zero-uk-carbon-emissions-by-2050 – June, 2019

‘UK greenhouse gas emissions: fast progress but not yet enough to meet future targets’- June, 2019


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jun/18/uk-climate-plan-unclear-says-european-commission– Jun, 2019

UK current targets and progress

Chief Exec CCC, Chris Stark- VIDEO


UK cabinet approve 3rd Heathrow runway expansion


Latest report


7. Where we can go to get help. What help is available to us?

General Resources

See ‘What we can do to reduce our impact’ section


Central Government Resources

Speech by Speech by Sir James Bevan, Chief Executive, Environment Agency Flood and Coast Conference, Telford International Centre, 18 June 2019

Not drowning but waving: making the climate emergency a global opportunity



Video from

Chief Exec CCC, Chris Stark.




Useful organisations/ resources CAC-Chapter6-FINAL

8. How we can motivate others to take action, including gaining the confidence to express our Carbon Literacy to others?

Communicating Climate Change Activity

‘The climate paradox.’


Telling the story – how to communicate about climate change​

1. What are your experiences of this? ​
2. What challenges might you come up against? ​

3. How might you overcome these?​


– You want to encourage your employer to take action on climate change- how would you influence him/her to do this?

– You are discussing with your family where you should go on holiday. How will you persuade them to opt for a low carbon holiday as opposed to flying (e.g. a holiday in the UK, or taking the train instead of flying).

Behaviour Change Policy

SD14002_3822_FRP (2).pdf

5.2 Lessons for future policy-making- page 68



The action of individuals can and does make a difference
We need to work with others to create change
Overall, the outcome of the changes we need to see can lead to a better world and a better way of life

United Nations – Co-benefits of climate action and clean energy
Welcome Trust – Climate change action, the good news
Climate Connections – Economic benefit of climate action

European Commission – Benefits of climate action
C40 Cities – Benefits of climate action

Equity and Fairness now and in the future, underlies the changes that we want to see in the UK and globally

Carbon Map – Which countries are responsible for climate change and which will be most vulnerable to the impacts, interactive map

Environmental Justice Atlas –The EJ Atlas collects stories of communities struggling for environmental justice from around the world

The Conversation – Climate justice and its role in the Paris Agreement
Guardian – Portuguese children sue 47 countries

Who’s emitting all the greenhouse gas? Ask participants to order 10 greenhouse gas emitting countries overall, and per capita. (This can also be to discuss climate justice by ordering them for a third time by how vulnerable these countries are to the impacts of climate change, and you could also ask them to order by historical emissions!) Discuss what the reasons for the differences are and how the participants feel about the

Local Authorities Resourecs

Ashden Co-benefits resources/examples

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